Silver Mirror Production Line



Xinology SM Series Silver Mirror Production Line Produces Top Quality Silver Mirror At Lowest Possible Cost


There are several ways to turn glass into mirror. Mirrors are obtained when reflective metals deposit on glass. The most popular metals are silver, aluminum and chromium, etc. Most of the mirrors around us everyday are made of silvering process. Xinology SM series mirror silvering conveyors are designed for industrial mass production of silver mirror.

Silver plating principle of SM series mirror silvering conveyor makes use of high performance deoxidization to deposit thin silver and copper films on flat glass. Lastly, mirror back paints are applied on top of silver and copper films.


Silver Metal Molecules Are Reduced From Silver Ions Solution By Reducing Agent & Deposit On Glass Surface


Silver plating reaction is carried out between silver ion solution and glucose, fructose or formaldehyde solution which is also know as reducing agent or reducer. Silver nitrate is usually used as source of silver ion. Oxidation of carbon occurred when silver ion is reduced. During the reaction, silver ions are reduced to silver molecules and adhere to glass. Formation of silver metal is due to reduction of silver ion.

It is a redox (reduction and oxidation) reaction with selective organic substances. One substance loses electrons while another substance gains electrons.

  • Substance that loses electrons is said to be oxidized. This substance is so called reducing agent or reducer.
  • Substance that gains electrons is said to be reduced. This substance is so called oxidization agent.

In silver coating, glucose, fructose or formaldehyde solution is known as reducing agent or reducer. Silver nitrate is known as oxidation agent.


Mirrors Have Been Developed For Hundreds of Years

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Many years ago, mercury was used in certain glassware when reflective effect was required. At that time, mirror was also known as mercury glass. Nowadays, mirrors are generally made of

  • silvering process by depositing silver on glass
  • aluminum or chromium deposited on glass by evaporation under vacuum
  • aluminium or chromium deposited on glass by magnetron sputtering under vacuum

Glass Scrubbing & Washing

Industrial Production Of SM Series Mirror Silvering Conveyor Consists Of Quite A Number Of Processes


Glass Scrubbing & Washing

Clean glass is one of the most critical point to obtain top quality mirror.

Glass Warming Up

Silvering process performs well when glass is at about 30℃. Therefore, glass is warm up with heated water.

Sensitizing Tinning

Glass surface is needed to be sensitized before silvering. The sensitized material is usually tin ions solution.


Silver ion solutions and reducing agents are meter, mixed and spray on glass. Silver ions are reduced to silver metal molecules depositing on glass.


Copper ion solutions and reducing agents are meter, mixed and spray on glass. Copper ions are reduced to copper metal molecules depositing on glass. Copper is used for fragile silver layer protection.

Blowing & Drying

Excessive chemical solutions are blown off. Excessive water is then dried by force air.

Mirror Back Painting

Mirrors are then further protected and enhanced by painting with opaque paint. Painting prevents from physical contacts and chemical corrosions. Light reflection is brighter because the paint reduces further the light passing the silver coating. It could be one or two paint layers depending on requests.

Drying & Curing

Paints are then dried and cured at high temperature. Heating speeds up curing process and provides smooth paint surface which optically looks better.

Acid Washing

Acid is used to remove silver, copper and paint residues left on mirror front surface during preceding processes.

Final Washing & Drying

Mirror is then thoroughly washed by water and is air dried prior to packing.

Paint Layers

Few factors are to be considered when deciding to use one or two layers of paint


There are several well known international mirror standards. Some of them do not mention how many layers of paint are required as long as mirror samples pass all the tests such as salt spray test. Some standards mention two layers of paint are required. These standards maybe issued some years ago when paint quality did not perform very well for protection. So the standards requested compulsory two layers of paint for better protection. However, paint quality becomes better as chemical industry is developing. Nowadays, one layer of excellent quality of paint may meet all tests including salt spray test. Hence, when it is requested to meet those standards which do not mention how many paint layers are required, single layer of excellent quality of paint layer maybe good enough.

Paint Quality

If paint quality is not good quality, double layers of paint maybe required. If excellent quality of paint is employ, single paint layer maybe good enough to meet all kinds of test.

Customer Request

Requested standard does not mention how many of paint layers are required. Single layer of paint may meet all kinds of test. However, some customers may feel comfortable or competitive if mirror has two layers of paint.

Ordinary Mirror

Ordinary Mirrors Are Around Us Everyday

Most of mirrors around us are general mirrors with silver, aluminum or chromium deposition. For example, bath or show room mirrors, makeup mirrors, closet mirrors, hand carried cosmetic & makeup mirrors, car mirrors, decorative mirrors for restaurants, studios, fitness and living rooms, etc.

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Safety Mirror

Safety Secure Mirror Is Shatter Proof


Most of glass mirrors are not tempered. They fracture into large sharp fragments like ordinary glass. Some countries do not allow by law. Safety protective clear self adhesive films could be applied on mirror back. When mirrors break, fragments are firmly held by safety films. The films are usually applied on mirror back by special design roller type film application machines.

Heated Defog Mirror

Heated Defogging Steam Free Mirrors Get Rid Of Annoy Steam During Showering & Bathing


If mirror is installed in those areas where there is high humidity and steam, for example, bath and shower room. Fog may occur on mirror surface when there is steam. Mirror could be heated up to get rid of the fog. Generally, electrically conductive paste, film or coatings are applied on mirror back. It is wired to power supply during mirror installation. The heating power prevents fog from forming on mirror surface.

Antique Mirror

Antique Mirrors Are Always Class Decoration Objects For Furnishings


Most of antique mirrors available in markets are not genuine. The mirror itself is made of nowadays process. The only different is the frames which look old fashion or antique.

Color Mirror

Colour Mirrors Are always Made Of Tinted Glass With Ordinary Silver Metal Plating


Some mirrors look gold. They are not gold plated. Gold mirrors are usually obtained by silvering on amber tint float glass instead of clear. Similarly, blue mirrors are usually obtained by silvering on blue tint float glass.

Convex Mirror

Convex Mirror Is A Piece Of Bent Glass With Reflective Metal Coating Applied On Concave Surface

Glass is usually bent before reflective metal depositions. They are always used in those areas where objects magnifications viewed in distance are required. For example, corner streets, car parking areas and car side view mirrors.

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Concave Mirror

Concave Mirror Is A Piece Of Bent Glass With Reflective Metal Coating Applied On Convex Surface

Glass is usually bent before metal depositions. They are applied where objects magnifications viewed in close distance are required, for example, cosmetic & makeup mirrors, microscopes, medical and dental surgeries. Concave mirrors are sometimes used for cooking or heating. Objects to be cooked or heated are put in mirror centers. Objects are hold in positions above mirror. Sun rays hitting on mirror are all reflected and focus on objects above.

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Curve Mirrors

Curve Mirrors Save Environment & Bring Joys

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Curve mirrors are used for funny mirrors for amusement. It is also used for cooking and heating.

Optic Mirror

Mirrors Are Also Extensively Used In Optical Industry

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Another series of mirrors which around us everyday but we do not notice are mirrors used in optical industry, for example, camera, projectors, instruments and laboratory devices, etc. They are always high tech mirrors made with state of art materials and processing skill.

Front Surface Mirror

Precision Instruments Require Top Quality Front Surface Mirrors


When we look at a piece of ordinary mirror, metal deposition is on the other side of the mirror covered by paint. Mirror front surface has no coating. Light passes through glass layer before reflecting off on mirror back. Images are dim because glass is slightly reflective and not 100% transparent. Images are also blurred by "ghost images" that reflect off the glass front surface. In some applications, vague images are not allowed, for example, cameras, projectors, laser printers, telescopes, optical instruments and kaleidoscopes. Front surface mirrors, also known as first surface mirrors, eliminate ghost images inherent in second surface mirrors. Front surface mirrors provide brighter images and reduce light losses. First surface mirrors are generally made by vacuum depositing aluminum coating onto front glass surface.

Plastic Mirror

Acrylic Or Polycarbonate Mirrors Are Used When Thin, Light & Safety Are Major Concerns

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To reduce weight and for safety purpose, some of hand carried cosmetic mirrors are made of plastic sheet. It could be 1 or 2mm thick acrylic or polycarbonate. Usually aluminium is deposited on plastic sheets. All toys mirror should be made of plastic.

Stainless Steel Mirror

Mirror could be made from polished stainless steel

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It could be applied in elevators where broken fragments are not allowed and weight is most concern. It could be turned to a postmodern sophisticated art piece which silvering or aluminium process is costly.

Glass of Mirror

Silvering Is Always Done On Excellent Quality Of Glass

If it is flat glass, float glass is always employed. If glass is flaw, the defects become more obvious after mirroring. Sometimes, sheet glass is used for thin mirror, for example 1 or 2mm. This is always applied in tiny mirrors such as hand carry cosmetic mirrors. When mirror is small, flaw or wave is not quite obvious.

Mirror Edge Protection

Mirror Edge Protection Paint Prevents Chemical Corrision From Edge Attack

Silver may be exposed at mirror edge if process is improperly done. Corrosion may attack and spread from edge to inner side. If it is necessary, chemical agent is added on mirror edges for anti-corrosive protection.

"L" & "U" Layout

Layout Of SM Series Could Be Designed In Straight, L or U Shape

SM series silver mirror production is generally design in a straight line. If necessary, for example, limited of workshop space, the line could be designed in L-shape or U-shape.